Avocado also called alligator pear the fruit of Persea Americana of the family. Avocados are ancient fruits and originated from Central America and Mexico. Avocado fruit is also known as Butter Fruits in India. Avocado is a tropical fruit and it looks like a pear fruit. These fruits are a rich source of nutrients compared with other fruits. Avocados in the 1900s in India introduced on the west coast by way of Sri Lanka. avocados are mainly cultivated south Indian states produce avocados. Avocado fruits are mainly used as fresh fruit. avocados are mainly used in salads & sandwiches. Avocado cultivation is slowly in India, and cultivation has a good future in India. General July to Sept is the time period to find avocados in the market.
Avocado cultivation is suitable in tropical and semi-tropical humid areas. Avocado plants cannot tolerate hot dry winds and frost. They grew best in true tropical to the warmer regions of the temperate area.
Avocado fruits can be grown well in all variety of soils except on poorly drained soils as these plants are very sensitive to waterlogging. Don't plant in saline soils for these Avocado plants cannot tolerate saline conditions. The soil pH should be between 5.0 and 7.0 for better growth and good yield.
After planted, when plants are young weeds should be controlled mechanically or Hand weeding. Hand weeding not suitable for avocado plantation. Mechanical weedicides can be applied to prevent the weeds.
Avocado Fruit Farming makes the wetland weed-free and by giving two times of ploughings. And prepare the land in such a way that water should not be stagnated. Adding enough farmyard manure or a well-decomposed compost will increase the fertility of the soil so the yield.
Before planting takes Dig the size of the pit of 90 cm x 90 cm and fill the pits with organic manure and topsoil in a 1:1 ratio preferably in Feb to March month suitable for growth. For plant spacing in an avocado, fruit farming depends upon the farmer and the growth habit of the plants. commonly the plant spacing of 8 m to 10 m is recommended in the avocado plantation. For Fuerte variety, wants more spacing for its spreading nature. In the state of Sikkim, the distance of 10 m x 10 m is preferred in June to July period on the hills slopes area.
Avocado Fruit Farming requires heavy manuring and nitrogen plays an important role in avocado fruit farming. Before Seedlings of the avocado plant should be applied with N: P2O5: K2O in a proportion of 1:1:1 when plants get maturity can be applied in the ratio of 2:1:2. Generally, the soils having pH values above 7.0 will show iron deficiency which can be corrected by adding iron chelate at 30 to 35 grams/tree. For best yield and growth of the avocado, apply inorganic fertilizers along with
Avocado fruit farming irrigation must be carried out very soon as the transplantation takes place in the plantation field. The irrigations can be carried out at 3 to 4 weeks intervals, when in dry hot weather conditions. Mulching should avoid moisture during the winter season. Mulch the Avocado plants with dry grass or dry leaves to retain the moisture level. During the rainy season, there is no need. If in case of heavy rains or flooding, water should be drained out from avocado plants are very sensitive to water stagnation. Drip irrigation is preferred as a good irrigation method to improves fruit size.
In the avocado plantation, the common problems of pests are mites, mealybugs, and scales. for Control of the pests are by spraying insecticides at an appropriate time.
Diseases found in Avocado Fruit Farming are root rot, leaf spot, and fruit spot. If you want to control the root rot disease by applying metalaxyl mixed with soil before planting the seedlings. If you want any help means to contact the nearest horticulture department or agriculture department for particular pest and disease control measures in avocado fruit farming. These diseases and pests may differ from the variety and soil type and moisture and climate conditions.
After planting Avocado plants grown from seeds will be getting ready for fruit harvesting in 5 to 6 years. There are two types of fruits in avocado cultivation, purple and green. To know the maturity of the fruits, the Avocado Fruit color change should be observed. Usually, the purple color avocado variety will change the color from purple to maroon, and in the green variety of avocado, fruit color changes from green to yellow. Avocado fruits will get ready for harvesting after the seed coat changes its color from yellow-white to dark brown color.
Avocado, popularly known as butter fruit. now a day emerged as amain cash crop in the hill station, because of to low production costs and high returns. If you planted in Seedlings it will take 10 years to give yield, but graft plants start giving yield from the seventh year. The yield of one tree per year is around 265 kg and its maintenance is very easy as it is not affected by pests and diseases. On average, a farmer can get a yearly revenue between Rs.5,000 and Rs.6,000 per tree. the single avocado tree gives about 120 to 150 fruits annually. and butter fruit rate from Rs 60-80/kg a year ago to Rs 120-130/kg six months back, now it Rs 180 in August-September to Rs 260-300 now.
It also have copper-zinc, iron, manganese, phosphorous, and vitamins A, B1, B2 and B3.